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PCB Reverse Engineering

Introduction of surface coating process in PCB Copy Engineering

 1, PCB Copy Engineering Anti-Pit Agent anti-pit agent
Refers to the electroplating solution added in the organic additives, can reduce the surface tension of the bath, so that the surface of the hydrogen bubbles generated by the rapid dissolution, and to avoid the adhesion of hydrogen and the occurrence of pits (Pits). This anti-damping agent is most commonly used in nickel-plated baths.
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2, PCB Copy Engineering brightener glossy agent
Is added in the electroplating solution of various additives (Additive), and make the coating appear glossy appearance of the chemicals. General luster can be divided into a first-class luster (known as the carrier gloss of the economy) and the second-level luster, the former is to help the latter evenly distributed with, and so are constantly tested to find the organic additives.
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3, PCB Copy Engineering Brush Plating Brush Plating
Is a simple electroplating tank without electroplating equipment, the inconvenient into the slot of the large, to "brush the law" done in full or partial plating in terms of. Also known as Stylus Plating painting or plating.
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4, PCB Copy Engineering Build-Up thickening, accumulation
Usually refers to the plating of a particular area to be thickened, the word in other places means "accumulation."
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5, PCB Copy Engineering
Refers to the coating current density is too high in the area, the coating has lost metal light   only wild chase hi Wei Wei Wei?
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6, PCB Copy Engineering Carbon Treatment, Active Activated Carbon Treatment
A variety of electroplating bath after a period of use, can not help but because of the decomposition of additives and plate resistance agent into, and organic pollution, need to use very fine activated carbon powder mixed with the solution to be absorbed, and then filtered And to decontamination, known as activated carbon treatment. Usually can also be activated carbon particles of the filter for maintenance and filtration.
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7, PCB Copy Engineering in the Cartridge filter
This word refers to the original shell or cartridge. In the PBC and electroplating industry is used to express the filter in the "replaceable filter." Is made of polypropylene yarn wound hollow short-shaped cylinder, so that the pressure of the tank from the outside flow, and the small particles to be caught floating, is a deep filter media.
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8, PCB Copy Engineering Complexion wrong ion
Electrolyte dissolved in water will be hydrolyzed into ions, such as salt can be hydrolyzed into a simple Na + and Cl-. However, some salts hydrolyze after the formation of complex ions, such as gold cyanide potassium (gold salt) KAuCN2 that is hydrolyzed to K + simple ions, and Au (CN) -2 complex ions. This complex that its "intricate" meaning, then in the choice of translation, is copied from the Japanese characters "wrong ion". This term has been plaguing the students for many years, it is difficult to read the truth. Early years of the older scholars in the above four words as long as no election "wrong", the other three words are better understood, nor a "wrong" to now can not be changed, but also has been "wrong" down. Can be seen at the beginning of the translation, it should be embraced with fear of cautious mind, but also careful to engage in a serious textual research will not harm future generations. And Component is a bad agent, such as cyanide, ammonia and other elements can make him kind of elements of the reaction.
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Conductive Salt Conductive Salt
In the precious metal plating solution, since the content of the precious metal is not a lot (the gold content is only about 5 g / 1 in the gold plating solution), in order to maintain the good conductivity of the bath, it is necessary to add some potassium sodium phosphate in the bath or Other organic salts, used as conductive purposes, are called conductive salts.
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10, PCB Copy Engineering Deionized Water
The use of yin and yang two exchange resin, the water has been the existence of a variety of ions to be adsorbed to clear, and get high purity water called "deionized water" referred to as DI water, also known as Demineralized Water, commonly known as pure water, rechargeable Various formulations of electroplating syrup.
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11, PCB Copy Engineering
Refers to the surface of a variety of substrates, with different processing methods such as electroplating, vacuum steaming, electroless plating, printing, spraying, etc., the formation of various types of outer membrane, known as Deposition.
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12, PCB Copy Engineering Drag in / Drag out
Refers to the board in the wet process between the tank station and out of time, often due to porous and the former tank solution of chemicals "out", after washing may still have a little remnants, and was "brought into" the next station slot Liquid, so will cause the next tank of pollution. So it must be thoroughly washed to extend the service life of each bath.
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13, PCB Copy Engineering Dummy, Dummying fake plating, false plating
A variety of electroplating bath after a period of operation, must be activated carbon treatment to remove organic pollution, but also to add fake plating, with a very low current density of metal impurities to be plated. This kind of false plating is usually a large surface of stainless steel, according to the width of each division of the grid, and then to the direction of 60 degrees repeatedly folded into a wave type, deliberately caused significant high and low current area, to "plating "Metal impurities in the bath. This type of counterfeit plating can also be used as a bath maintenance tool. Generally decorative glossy nickel plating, must always carry out this maintenance of false plating work.
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14, PCB Copy Engineering in the Electrolytic Cleaning electrolytic cleaning
The metal object to be cleaned is hung on the cathode or anode of the cleaning tank (including the cleaning agent and the surface humectant). In the application of the external current, oxygen can be generated on the anode to generate hydrogen on the cathode. In the use of the cleaning effect of the bath, the bubble of the agitation, and set off under the effect of the object surface can achieve the purpose of decontamination cleaning, known as electrolytic cleaning. In the general metal plating process is very versatile, and even can be used in alternating alternating anode and cathode (Polarity Revesserse; P. R.), very convenient and effective.
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Electrolytic Copper Electrolytic
For the copper of a grade, is the "converter" in the treatment of the thick copper (ie, copper), and then hanging in the copper sulfate bath as an anode, and then electrolysis from the cathode on the more pure copper , That is, this ETP electrolytic copper (oxygen 0.025 ~ 0.05%). If the other ETP copper in a reductive environment and then smelting, you can become a better "oxygen-free copper" or "phosphor bronze", can be used as electric copper copper bath in the anode.
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16, PCB Copy Engineering Electro-tinning tin
But also a kind of electroplating method, but the purpose is not care about the coating is perfect or not, and only take low current and non-dissolved anode way, want to solution metal ions plated in a large area of ​​the multi-chip cathode plate to achieve recovery of metal and To reduce the emission of metal pollution in the water. Circuit board industry often in the copper liquid circulation system, the addition of such electrolytic recovery device.
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Fault Plane
In the early pyrophosphorization of copper, the local black and fine cracks are produced in the lamellar copper layer due to the accumulation of organic matter, which is due to the concentration of co-deposited carbon atoms. From the micro-slice of the screen can clearly see the arc of the black line, called "fault."
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18, PCB Copy Engineering filter filter, filter lens
In the wet process bath operation, in order to remove the solid particles produced by the installation of the filter equipment, known as the filter. This word sometimes refers to the optical magnifier, the special effect of the filter lens.
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19, PCB Copy Engineering Gilding Gilded
Is gold-plated old-fashioned argument, now GM Gold Plating.
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Hardness Hardness
Refers to a "resistance to Penetration" that a substance has to resist foreign invasion. For example, with a hard thorn (Penetrator) forced on the metal surface, the subject will be subject to soft and hard, and the emergence of different sizes of indentation (Indentation), by the depth or area of ​​such indentation can be determined Its hardness representative value. Common hardness can be divided into "ten thousand hardness" and "microhardness" two, the former, such as high-strength steel, hardened chrome after the surface, in the indenter (Indentator) load of 150 kg measured hardness, Quot; RC-60 & quot; (i.e., 60 degrees of Rockwell & quot; C & quot; scale). The microhardness of the microhardness can be expressed as "KHN25150" (ie, 25 grams) Load the probe under the microscope carefully pressed on the gold layer, with its long diamond-shaped size and get 150 degrees). General gold-plated layer due to the need to have good wear resistance, its micro-hardness often pay attention to, but the KHN25150 ~ 200 between the toughness is appropriate, too hard to wear easily. Generally after the tempering of pure gold, the micro-hardness that is back to KHN25 80 or so.
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Hydrogen Embrittlement Hydrogen
Because the plating solution is prepared by the water, so in the plating at the same time, the water will be electrolyzed on the cathode hydrogen generated in the anode to produce oxygen. It is because the positive with the H will go to the cathode swimming, with a negative O = will go to the anode swimming. Because the volume of hydrogen is very small, so when it is in the cathode appearance of landing, but not in time to be driven away from the floating, it is likely to be part of the metal will be covered by the subsequent cover and remain in the coating, and even To the metal substrate in the slit drilling, resulting in the embrittlement of the plating is called "hydrogen embrittlement." This phenomenon is very high damage to high-strength steel objects, the Second World War, the US military found that many aircraft landing gear is often broken, and later developed that because of plating when the "hydrogen embrittlement" caused. Generally, the "hydrogen brittleness" of the alkaline solution is less than that of the acid plating solution, and if it can be baked at 200 ° C for 2 hours or more immediately after plating, most of the hydrogen can be discharged. Practices can reduce the occurrence of hydrogen embrittlement.
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22, PCB Copy Engineering in the Laminar Structure flake structure
In the circuit board is used in the early use of "pyrophosphate PCB copper" copper layer, the microstructure is the standard layered sheet structure, and high-speed copper foil (1000 ASF above) with the column structure (Columnar Structure) is completely different. Later, the development of copper sulfate coating, showing no specific crystalline state, but its performance of the average elongation (Elongation) and Tensile Strength (Tensile Strength) but rather better than the former two.
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23, PCB Copy Engineering Leveling leveling
Electroplating bath added in the organic additives, can be divided into gloss and carrier (Carrier) two categories, leveling agent (Leveler or Levelling Agent) is one of the latter. Circuit board PCB plating is particularly indispensable leveling agent, otherwise the deep hole in the central will be difficult to have copper plating. The reason why it is to help the leveling of the coating is due to the fact that the high current density zone will adsorb more organic matter (such as leveling agent), resulting in an increase in resistance at the point where copper ions are not easily accessible or the current is consumed , So that low current density high resistance area can also be deposited (Deposit), so the coating can be gradually uniform. Bare copper plate exposed to the copper surface to be sold, need to do spray tin layer, the original also known as Hot Air Leveling, the mainland term for the "hot air leveling."
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Moving Rate
When the "metal migration" occurs in the insulating substrate or on the surface, the migration distance presented in a certain period of time is the Migration Rate.
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25, PCB Copy Engineering
This word has two uses in the circuit board industry, one of which is described in the above "mass transfer", refers to the metal ions in the electroplating solution, attracted by electricity to move to the cathode phenomenon, known as "migration" The In addition, if gold is directly plated on the copper surface of the cheat, there is a phenomenon of migration between the two atoms, so that it must be galvanized separately to keep the gold layer from degradation due to purity Resulting in an increase in contact resistance. The most prone to "migration" in all kinds of metals, then non-silver, when silver-plated parts in the welding, the silver is easy to go to the solder "migration", especially known as Silver Migration or Silver Depletion, The reason may be due to the influence of water vapor and potential stimulation. When the parts of the foot surface of the silver are slipped into the solder, the strength of the solder joints will inevitably greatly affected, often cracked the crisis. And therefore had no cost, in the solder deliberately add another 2% of the amount of silver to prevent the silver parts of the foot after the vicious migration of the weld. In the other thick film circuit (Thick Film, refers to the porcelain hybrid circuit Hybrid Silver "), the silver will also slip away, even up to several mm away (see RJKlein Wassink famous Soldering in Electronics, 1984, the first edition of the P.142; And p. 217 of 1989 Second Edition). Other, such as tin, lead, copper, indium, although it will migrate, but it was slightly more than silver


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