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HT12E Encoder and Decoder

HT12E Encoder and Decoder

Overview of the HT12E Encoder and Decoder

The HT12E is a popular encoder/decoder pairing used for remote control applications. The HT12E encoder converts parallel data into serial for transmission, while the HT12E decoder converts the serial data back into parallel data. Some key features of the HT12E include:

  • Low power consumption
  • 2^12 combinations – 4096 different address codes
  • Encoding transmission for secure operation
  • Transmission frequency of 433MHz
  • Operating voltage range of 2.4-12V DC

The HT12E encoder/decoder are commonly used in wireless remote controls, toys, and other radio frequency applications. The HT12E provides secure transmission through its large address space and encoding scheme.

HT12E Encoder

The HT12E encoder has 12 address pins and 4 data pins. This allows for 2^12 or 4096 different address combinations. The address is set on the 12 pins labeled A0 through A11. The 4 data pins labeled D0 through D3 are used for the parallel data input.

The encoder uses a transmission frequency of 433MHz, which is commonly used for license-free radio frequency equipment. The encoded data signal is transmitted by an RF transmitter module at 433MHz.

The encoder runs on a power supply voltage from 2.4 to 12V DC. It has very low power consumption, requiring only 3mA at 5V. This makes it well suited for battery powered and remote applications.

Encoding Process

The encoding process works as follows:

  1. The 12-bit address is set on pins A0-A11 to uniquely identify the encoder.
  2. The 4-bit parallel data is applied to pins D0-D3.
  3. Upon signal input, the encoder converts the parallel inputs into a serial coded data stream.
  4. This serialized encoded data is sent to the RF transmitter module for wireless transmission.

The encoder applies Manchester encoding to convert the parallel data into a secure serial stream. The Manchester scheme embeds clock and data together, preventing erroneous transmissions.

HT12E Decoder

The HT12E decoder receives the encoded serial data from an RF receiver module tuned to 433MHz. It converts the serial input back into the original parallel data output.

The decoder needs to have its 12 address pins A0-A11 set to the same address as the corresponding encoder unit. If the addresses match, the decoder will process the received serial data. If the addresses do not match, the decoder will not process the data.

Decoding Process

The decoding process follows these steps:

  1. The encoded serial data is received by the RF receiver module at 433MHz.
  2. This data is sent to the decoder’s serial input pin (DIN).
  3. The 12-bit decoder address must match the encoder address for decoding.
  4. The decoder decodes the serial input stream, applying Manchester decoding.
  5. The original parallel data is reconstructed on output pins D0-D3.

By setting the correct 12-bit address, the decoder will only accept data from the encoder unit with a matching address. This prevents other nearby signals from inadvertently controlling the decoder.


The HT12E encoder/decoder pair are commonly used for:

  • Garage door openers
  • Remote control cars, planes, boats
  • Wireless alarm systems
  • Wireless data transmission
  • Toys including drones, robotics

The HT12E provides long range transmission, addressing for multi-unit control, and data encoding for error-free transmission. These capabilities make the HT12E suitable for a wide variety of wireless control applications.

Examples and Diagrams

Here is an example circuit diagram showing how the HT12E encoder and decoder are used:

In this example, a set of switches provides input to the encoder, which sends wireless data to the receiver/decoder. The decoder activates its outputs according to the switch states.


The HT12E encoder/decoder set provides an easy-to-use and affordable means for encoding, transmitting, and decoding remote control data. With 4096 address options and Manchester encoding, the HT12E supports secure transmission for a wide array of wireless projects and products. The HT12E series continues to be popular for remote controls, toys, models, and other applications requiring short-range wireless data transfer.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the range of the HT12E?

The range depends on factors like the antenna, terrain, transmitter power, and receiver sensitivity. Under optimal conditions, range may reach up to 100 meters. More typical ranges are 10-50 meters.

What modulation method does the HT12E use?

The HT12E employs ASK (Amplitude Shift Keying) modulation with encoded serial data. The RF transmitter module then transmits this modulated signal at 433MHz.

How many addresses are available with HT12E?

The HT12E has 12 address pins, allowing 2^12 combinations or 4096 unique addresses. This allows controlling multiple devices separately.

Can the HT12E transmit bidirectional data?

No, the HT12E only transmits in one direction, from the encoder to the decoder. For bidirectional communication, a two encoder/decoder pair can be used.

Are there other encoder/decoder options similar to HT12E?

Yes, there are other options like the HT640, PT2262/PT2272, and EV1527/EV1537 which provide similar functionality. The HT12E is popular due to its very low power and cost.